The Dust Of Time \/\/FREE\\\\
A, an American film director of Greek ancestry, is making a film that tells his story and the story of his parents. It is a tale that unfolds in Italy, Germany, Russia, Kazakhstan, Canada and the USA. The main character is Eleni, who is claimed and claims the absoluteness of love. At the same time the film is a long journey into the vast history and the events of the last fifty years that left their mark on the 20th century. The characters in the film move as though in a dream. The dust of time confuses memories. A searches for them and experiences them in the present.
The Dust of Time
The Dust of Time, Angelopoulos' last film.While it wasn't meant to be his final work, as he died while making what would supposedly be his last film, The Other Sea , The Dust of Time nevertheless works as a great ending to Theo's career. It mixes many themes & elements from his previous work like Ulysses Gaze, Voyage to Cythera etc. while at the same time crafting something new, challenging the director's style in fascinating ways.
"Outside it was snowing. The snow was falling silently on the city that was still sleeping. On the deserted streets, the waters of the canals, on all the dead, and the living. On time passed, on time passing. On the universe."
I was searching for a place like this, but only found one near Campo dei Fiore. I wish I had read your post on this at that time. Of course, you did not publish it yet. I will save to my Pocket app for our next trip. At some point, you need to put all of this in a book. So many books Rome, but none that have your content.
In doing so, Marvel Comics have created a time travel-ridden backdrop that is almost impermeable to the casual reader. Further, Marvel Comics do not engage in the periodic pruning which DC Comics do: rebooting its overarching house plot, its continuity, so as to smooth the way for new readers and snip away at those elements of storylines which either have failed or form barriers for new creative innovations. (DC Comics are in fact entering a new period of regeneration this month.)
The temporary transformation of superhero characters into agents of Apocalypse has been initiated many, many times by Marvel Comics. This plot device presents scenarios whereby the otherwise altruistic heroes are compelled to fight each other. It is used so often that it is more a cliche than a twist, but one which seems to be popular with regular readers of American superhero comic books.
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Here, we revisit the reduction of sunlight received by Earth that results from the placement of dust at or near the inner Lagrange point, L1, lying directly between Earth and the Sun, including gravitational perturbations from the Moon and other planets. While unstable, these corotating orbits allow for the possibility of temporarily shading Earth. We start by assessing the shadows produced by various types of dust; then we numerically determine orbits that persist near L1, including the impact of radiation pressure and solar wind. Our main results are a connection between the quantity and quality of dust and the attenuation of sunlight at Earth on achievable orbits near L1. To compare with previous work, we target a reduction in solar irradiance of 1.8%, or 6 attenuation-days per year.
Other dust or grain configurations include particles with elongated shapes (e.g., ice crystals) or in fluffy agglomerates. When the geometric limit applies, the average scattering cross section of a randomly oriented, long cylinder (length L and diameter D) is(6)When the wavelength of light is comparable to D, the cross-section is much larger .
Orbits at the Lagrange point L1 are metastable. A well-placed test particle in an idealized restricted three-body experiment with Earth and Sun can orbit at L1 for multiple dynamical times. However, numerical experiments demonstrate that finding the location of L1 may require fine tuning. Objects with starting positions that are separated from the L1 location by less than a kilometer drift to distances of 1000 km or more from that point in less than a year. Velocity perturbations as small as a centimeter per second can also cause substantial drift away from L1 in a dynamical time.
For particles initially orbiting at the L1 point, a non-zero β can lead to a rapid drift from the ideal, purely gravitational orbit. We define a persistence time,(25)to represent the equivalent time that Earth is fully shaded by a grain. Fig 3 illustrates how the persistence time depends on β for spherical grains with several different radii. At small β, and for particles with radii much larger than a micron, the persistence time is long, at least months. Sub-micron grains have short persistence even when β is small, since they are swept away from L1 by the solar wind.
The various tracks show the persistence time for grains of difference sizes, as indicated in the legend. These values were obtained by numerical integration, where each grain was starting as in the trajectory in Fig 2. The overall trend is for persistence to increase with decreasing β, except at small β and for small grain radii. In these limits, the solar wind sweeps particles away from L1.
We first consider a monodisperse dust cloud at true L1, as in Fig 2. The optimal attenuation for a cloud perfectly centered between Earth and the Sun is(28)where rp, ρp, and Qext are the radius, bulk density and scattering efficiency of individual dust grains, respectively. Fig 1 provides examples of the attenuation as a function of dust particle size for a variety of materials. Coal dust, which is an efficient absorber, provides the strongest attenuation when dust particles are approximately a few tenths of a micron in radius. Glass, when formed into elongated, hollow tubes, has a peak attenuation when the volume-equivalent radius is about ten microns.
The viewing location is the subsolar point, and the solid grey circle shows the edge of the solar disk, as in Fig 2. The simulated trajectory of the orbiter is calculated as in that earlier figure. The particles are ejected in a jet-like stream, as described in the text. The image shows grains after 48 days after the start time in the simulation. S1 Animation shows the full sequence of images from which this snapshot was taken.
The cascade of dependencies in this equation begins with the scattering properties of each grain. Its extinction efficiency determines how many Earth-bound solar photons it can eliminate, but that factor, along with the scattering anisotropy, sets β (Eq 23), the degree to which radiation pressure can affect its orbit. Higher values of β require larger distance between the cloud and Earth, substantially reducing the angular size of each dust grain, and diluting the shade provided to Earth. To compensate, the mass of the cloud could be tuned for a desired level of attenuation.
Because of issues of persistence at L1 and L1-like locations, we considered other strategies, including particles launched from the surface of the Moon, on orbits that are optimized to block the Sun as they stream toward L1. Fig 8 illustrates the path of a burst of lunar dust with radius 0.2 μm from a ballistic launch at 4.7 km/s from the northern pole of the Moon. The cumulative attenuation in this case is 0.11 days for 109 kg of dust.
A similar numerical experiment with larger, 1 μm grains yielded a cumulative attenuation of 0.03 days. Radiation pressure is less impactful than for smaller particles, so these larger grains can achieve an orbit that intercepts Earth and the Sun with slower launch speeds (2.8 km/s). However, despite the longer time that they spend shadowing Earth along their trajectory, their scattering efficiency is relatively low (Fig 1); a cloud of 109 kg provides a cumulative attenuation of only 0.025 d.
Fortuitiously, the distribution of grain sizes in the lunar regolith peaks around 0.2 μm, the size with the highest scattering efficiency. In Apollo samples, approximately 20% of the lunar regolith mass is in the form of dust smaller than 20 μm park2008, with a lognormal distribution peaking at a grain size of about 0.2 μm. About 30% of this small-sized material is in grains between 0.1 and 0.3 μm (Fig 3 in ). Either sifting the existing regolith for the desired grain size or milling the larger bulk could provide a substantial reservoir of dust. The prospects for mining lunar dust with grain sizes suitable for shielding Earth are promising.
Variations on the choice of materials, launch method, and orbit types may lead to strategies with advantages over the ones considered here. For example, if designer glass grains were manufactured from raw materials on the lunar surface, they may be delivered to an L1-like orbit more efficiently, or tuned to have mass and scattering properties that enable them to follow Earth-Sun-intercept orbits for longer periods of time than raw lunar dust.
In addition to the n-body simulations for estimating persistence and attenuation, we performed extended integrations to confirmed that dust from clouds ejected from the moon or launched between Earth and the Sun do not cross paths with Earth. Once dust is released, its only impact is to shade Earth. It will not otherwise interact with our planet again.
In the scenarios described here, large quantities of dust on orbits between Earth and the Sun can reduce the amount of sunlight received on our planet. Unlike Earth-based strategies, climate-change mitigation with this approach does not have long-term impacts on Earth or its atmosphere. Roughly 1010 kg of material annually is needed for Earth-climate impact, depending on the dust properties and how the cloud is deployed. Sources of dust include Earth, the Moon , or possibly a deflected asteroid [15, 16, 19]. Because dust grains between Earth and the Sun tend to drift out of alignment, they must be replenished. The lack of control of a dust cloud also may limit its effectiveness as a solar shield. Simulations with controllable sunshades show that a non-uniform shading of Earth may be required to mitigate climate change over the planet as a whole . However, the persistence of dust clouds can be short, allowing for seasonal control of the shading level. 041b061a72